Notes and Published references linked to web pages text. From GREEN PRINTS by Cedric Green published by Ecotech Design, Sheffield, UK. - a handbook on new methods for non-toxic intaglio etching and metal plate printmaking, featuring the technique of Galv-Etch, a modern development of the 19th century electrolytic techniques of Electro-Etching and Galvanography, and introducing Fractint and other alternative methods for avoiding the use of solvents and chemicals harmful to health and to the environment. .



  1. Cedric Green "Intaglio without tears", Printmaking Today, Vol.7 No.1, Spring 1998; edited by Rosemary Simmons Hon.RE, published by Farrand Press, 50 Ferry Street, Isle of Dogs, London E14 3DT. “Galvanography Revisited”, Printmaking Today, Vol 8 No.1, Spring, 1999, edited by Anne Desmet RE.

  2. Tim Challis, Print Safe, Estamp, London, 1987

  3. Dangers and ill-effects compiled from above reference and personal experience of problems.

  4. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 1973.

  5. Nouveau Petit Larousse Illustre, Paris, 1937.

  6. Faraday's Laws of Electrolysis are:
    1. "the electrochemical action of a current is proportional to the current passed"
    2. "the weights of substances deposited or liberated by the same quantity of electricity are proportional to their chemical equivalent weights."

  7. WALKER, Charles V., Electrotype Manipulation, Part II. Containing The Theory, and Plain Instructions in the Arts of Electro-Plating, Electro-Gilding, and Electro-Etching; with an account of the Mode of Depositing Metallic Oxides, and of the Several Applications of Electrotype in the Arts. Nineteenth Edition, George Knight and Sons, London, 1855. (see Appendix A for text on Electro-Etching, and comments)

  8. Chattock R S, Practical Notes on Etching, 3rd Edition, Sampson Low, Marston, Searl, & Rivington, London 1886, (see Appendix A)

  9. William Crawford, The Keepers of Light - A History and working guide to early photographic processes, Morgan & Morgan, New York 1979.

  10. Otto Lilien, History of Industrial Gravure Printing up to 1920, Lund Humphries, London 1972.

  11. Pierre-Lin Renié, "Goupil & Cie à l'ère industrielle - la photographie appliquée à la reproduction des oeuvres d'art", in État des Lieux, Musée Goupil, Bordeaux, 1994.

  12. S W Hayter, About Prints, Oxford University Press 1962.

  13. Peter Jones, "Spanish Printmaking Summer School", Printmaking Today, Vol 2, No 3 Autumn 1993).

  14. (..................)

  15. Steve Hoskins, "The chemistry of ferric chloride" Printmaking Today, Vol 4 No 2. 1995.

  16. Friedhard Kiekeben, "The Edinburgh Etch: a breakthrough in non-toxic mordants", Printmaking Today, Vol.6 No.3 Autumn 1997.

  17. Nik Semenoff and L W Bader "Intaglio Etching of Aluminium and Zinc Using an Improved Mordant" , Leonardo, Vol 31, No 2, pp. 133 - 138, 1998.

  18. Sytze Folkertsma, Peter Sincovitz and Ad Stijnman, "Cleaning printing plates and brushes with VCA". Printmaking Today, Vol .5, No.1, Spring 1996.

  19. N.Semenoff and C.Christos, “Using Dry Copier Toners in Intaglio and Electro-Etching of metal Plates,” Leonardo Vol 24, No. 4, pp. 389-394, (1991).

  20. Ad Stijnman, "Kopersulfaat voor Zink: veilig, makkelijk en goedkoop etsen",Bijlage: kM nieuwsbrief 2 najaar 1999 (an English translation of this article is available by email).
  21. Spencer, Thomas & Wilson, John, "Engraving Metals by means of Voltaic Electricity", Patent Specicication, British Patent Office 1840.
  22. Spencer, Thomas, "An Account of some experiments made for the purpose of ascertaining how far Voltaic Electicity may be usefully applied to the purpose of working in metal.", XXXVII Annals of Electricity, Magnetism and Chemistry, Vol 4, January 1840.


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